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Ecological environment protection: how the Government out of the Woods
Author´╝Üsehenstar  Source´╝ÜSehenstar  Pubtime´╝Ü2014-09-30 09:27:46  Click´╝Ü1229
The capital investment in environmental protection and the need to develop

Ecological environment protection and development is a big project, government investment alone is far from enough, the innovation of investment and financing mechanism, give full play to government investment guidance, amplification, developed for social forces to participate in environmental protection and establishing an indirect, collection of investment channels, attracted a great deal of development of social capital to speed up ecological and environmental protection.

First, promoting the diversification of investment, improve the ecological environment and the level of financing the development of, and contribute to the establishment of an independent, fair, workable and efficient supervision system of eco-funds.

Government should continue to implement and increase subsidies for eco-friendly, based on increased support for eco-friendly industrial development funds, exercises guidance projects subsidies and incentives, to award the compensation, project grants, supporting development of private enterprises of good quality and distinctive added value of environmental protection, its demonstration and radiation effects. Industrialized management of the private enterprises engaged in environmental protection, to relax the policy, giving tax breaks.

Second, conducive to the realization of the function of Government in place, to get away from the complicated Affairs of the Government to focus on ecological and environmental protection, such as the formulation of policies and programmes, will be part of the work to the society to do it, to the Government sector and the private sector to complement each other.

Ecological environment protection and development funding, the Government should play a leading role, increase investment, expand the coverage of public finance. The introduction of social capital in environmental protection and development can not only solve the problems of insufficient funds, even more important is that driven by social capital, could facilitate the introduction of modern technology and management philosophy, introduction of market mechanism and the establishment of a long-term mechanism. Activate the eco-environmental resources, resources for the capital, conditions conducive to the formation of social capital, play to the basic role of market allocation and establish new useful eco-environmental protection and the development of a long-term mechanism.

The third will help to increase the advantages of private sector operations and management technology. Strategic investors is involved in eco-environment protection and development projects the market mechanism of survival of the fittest winner, they advanced management concepts and management models for the improvement of the ecological environment into life.

Finally, contribute to the coordination of environmental protection and development gaps between regions, and promote the overall improvement in the quality of ecological environment. From the perspective of investment risks in the private sector, help reduce risk, establish the regulatory regime. Reintegration of the parties involved, form strategic alliances and share the risks and responsibilities in the partnership.

Finally, help organize eco-friendly work how to market, optimize the allocation of resources, enhance the transparency of funds in eco-friendly and efficient use of funds. Ecological environment protection and development process must be carried out actively and steadily proceeding from the breadth and depth of market-oriented reforms, significant reduction of direct allocation of government resources, promote the allocation of resources according to market rules, market prices, and market competition to achieve maximum benefit and efficiency optimization.

Ecological environment protection and development of the theoretical basis of public-private cooperation model

Public-private partnership model initiated by Government and social capital in establishing long-term contractual relationships, to provide specific public goods or services. Focuses on coordination in the public-private partnership model between the Government and social capital funding, construction and operation, profit (risk), among others. Ecosystems can be divided into three levels: the ecological resources and ecosystem services as well as the ability to absorb the waste. Ecological environment protection and development involves three levels of ecosystems: develop ecological resources, protect ecosystem services and waste absorption capability.

First, eco-environmental protection and the development of quasi-public goods. Eco-system of quasi-public goods properties is in the development of eco-environmental protection and the use of public-private partnership basis. Of ecosystems as a whole belongs to the quasi-public goods, from natural resources, ecosystem services and waste absorption capacity of three levels of analysis.

Secondly, the diversity of eco-environmental protection and development. Ecological environment is the basis of human life and production activities, protection and exploitation of its recommendations is the common responsibility of mankind. On the subject of eco-environmental protection and development, can be individuals, corporations, Governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and so on.

Third, the development model of ecological environment protection and public-private cooperation should play advantage. Quasi-public goods properties of eco-environmental protection and development in this field as well as the existence of widespread market failure and Government failure, eco-environmental protection and development through multilateral cooperation, bring into play their respective advantages to jointly contribute to the construction of ecological civilization. Public-private cooperation in dealing with environmental protection and the development of huge potential, this model contract to coordinate the relationship between Government and the private sector, work together to tackle environmental problems. Ecological environment protection and development is a long-term, complex, global events, government departments and the private sector will need repeated consultations and research, will be able to reach an agreement. After the agreement, as well as the interests of both sides to pursue different, we must establish appropriate incentives and constraints. In view of the positive externalities of ecological environment protection and development, funds still have to make allowances. Public-private partnership model, through the system to reduce the cost of transactions between the parties of the agreement, shall become a cooperative response to one of the models of eco-environmental protection and development.

Finally, public-private cooperation models for ecological environment protection and development is the key to establishing a reasonable benefit (risk)-sharing mechanisms. Public-private partnership models need to benefit (risk) pay enough attention to the share. Reasonable benefit (risk) sharing mechanism to improve the environment, reduce the cost of government negotiations with the private sector to ensure projects run smoothly.

Established framework for attracting capital investment market

Development of environmental markets, establishment of ecological environmental protection in attracting capital investment market mechanism. Environmental industry than any other industry has its unique characteristics, many areas in the public service category, such as sewage treatment, garbage disposal, and so on. Therefore, all along, the Government guidance and planning of the environmental industry has a strong industrial market competition there are many chains in unincorporated areas. To make the market plays a decisive role in the allocation of resources, improve the modern market system, it is necessary to transform government functions, strengthen government procurement public services, promoting the Equalization of basic public services.

First, in ecological and environmental protection, the Government should "order oriented" model changes, perform public service functions. Paid use of environmental resources, and to establish the compensation system. Strengthen the management of public resources and service functions, establish reasonable relationship between environmental and economic interests, and economic benefits of sustainable development.

Establishment of evaluation mechanism of ecological civilization. Resource consumption, environmental damage, ecological urban development evaluation system, perfect goals, assessment approaches to ecological requirements, rewards and punishment mechanism to limit the development of regional and national poverty relief and development work focus on ecologically fragile areas, cancel the GDP assessment.

Establishment of national spatial development protection system. Establishment of the spatial planning system, and steadfast implementation of the system of main function region, delineation of ecological protection of the red line, in strict accordance with the main functional localization development, speed up the improvement of urban areas, major grain-producing areas of agricultural products, development of key ecological function area space systems of control, establish resource carrying capacity of the environment monitoring and early-warning mechanisms, strengthening control, water efficiency, water resources development and utilization limit pollutant management of water function areas.

Practice resources paid use system and ecological compensation system. Accelerate pricing reform of natural resources and products, fully reflected the market supply and demand, resource scarcity, ecological damage and repair cost effectiveness established living electricity, water, gas, etc system of tiered pricing; develop and improve eco-compensation-related policies and regulations, and efforts to increase investment in ecological compensation, expanding the scope of ecological compensation, improve standards for ecological compensation.

Establish resource environment property right transaction mechanism. Practice resources paid use system and ecological compensation system. Accelerate pricing reform of natural resources and products, fully reflected the market supply and demand, resource scarcity level and the cost of ecological damage and repair benefits. Who stick to paying and those who pollute the environment, eco-pays principles, gradually extend the resources tax to take up a variety of natural spaces. Stability and expanding the scope of returning farmland to forests and returning grazing land to grassland, excessive pollution and groundwater overdraft area land uses, orderly farmland, lakes and rivers to recuperate. Establish effective regulation mechanism of industrial land and residential land and reasonable prices, raise the price of industrial land. Adhere to the principle of who benefited and who compensated, perfect focus on ecological compensation mechanism of ecological function area, built between the regional landscape ecological compensation system. Development of environmental markets, implementation of energy-saving and carbon emission, emission rights, water rights trading system, establishment of ecological environmental protection in attracting capital investment market mechanism, the implementation of third-party management of environmental pollution.

To implement the most stringent environmental regulatory regimes. Established and perfect strictly regulatory all pollutants emissions of environmental protection management system, independent for environment regulatory and administrative law enforcement; perfect pollutants emissions license business, implemented enterprises pollutants emissions total control system; increased environment law enforcement efforts, strictly environment effects evaluation system, strengthened burst environment event emergency capacity construction, perfect to prevention of environment risk management system; on caused ecological environment damage of responsibility who strictly implemented compensation system, law held criminal Established land and sea integrated conservation and restoration of ecosystems and regional linkage mechanism for pollution prevention and control; pollution trial of compulsory liability insurance.

Secondly, innovation and strengthen the Government's investment in environmental protection, improve environmental investment and financing mechanism, attracting capital in ecological and environmental protection fields. This is to implement the central requirements, advance the reform of management system of eco-environmental protection of important content. First of all, to establish ecological environmental protection in attracting capital investment of the market mechanism, set up environmental protection investment management platform to attract social funds into environmental protection areas such as Bank, set up ecological and environmental protection fund. Second, adjust the structure of credit funds, increasing the money put on the line, boot money into ecological environmental protection and development. Innovative means of credit guarantees and guarantee schemes, setting up a guarantee fund or guarantee institutions, efforts to resolve the funds and private small and medium enterprises, cooperatives of small the problems of mortgage guarantee and improve private enterprises and cooperative organizations in the eco-environmental protection and development financing and the ability to take risks in business.

Establishment of macro-integrated decision-making mechanisms. Sound system of central-local consultation. Capacity, quality, and environmental impacts on the environment and the depletion of resources, impacts on ecosystems as part of statistical indicators, the ecological carrying capacity of the environment is as important indicators of the level of economic and social development.

Effective management to promote internalization of environmental externalities. Due to the market failure, and to manage environmental resources by Government to remedy market failures, externalities and the issue was resolved. Government can impose "pigovian tax" to solve externality problems.

Private sector to participate in eco-friendly and tax breaks, through subsidies and other ways to mobilize private sector initiative, attract capital into eco-friendly in order to give full play to the advantages of the private sector, and public sectors complement each other.

Improve legislation, improve the investment environment to break industrial monopolies and widening the channels of social capital into eco-friendly to guide social capital invested in eco-environment protection and development. Breaking social capital into eco-friendly areas of visible and invisible barriers and restrictions, most liberalized investment markets, encourage social investment in ecological and environmental protection fields. Should science develop in line with the local ecological environment and development of planning, Quicken the construction of eco-friendly.

The direction of social capital in addition to the investment incentives and investment preferential conditions and other factors, depends to a large extent, the investment environment is able to guarantee investment returns and investment purposes. Ecological environment protection and development, farmers should give full play to the Government and all sectors of society to jointly create a favorable environment for attracting capital. Mobilize broad participation, creating a service assurance environment. Strengthen the propaganda, guided eco-environmental protection and the community development established information channels, providing effective services; development of rural intermediary organizations such as legal, financial, maintaining the lawful rights and interests, assist private enterprise to invest in ecological environment protection and development.

Thirdly, the private sector to actively participate in the eco-friendly business, make full use of preferential policies provided by the Government, accelerate the development, expanding social influence, spurring more invested in eco-environmental protection and the development of social capital. Using social capital to participate in the eco-environmental protection and the development of private enterprises, developing efficient eco-agriculture and tourism and so on, should obtain the appropriate property rights or interests, provide the impetus for social capital entered the field of ecological and environmental protection and legal protection. Allowing private firms, cooperatives and farmers based on market demand and industrial needs, independent business and management style to select, adjust and optimize the industrial structure. Actively promote private enterprise to participate in all kinds of productive development, forming interests join mechanism, drive development of industrialization.

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